Sunday, January 26, 2020

Business Strategy In Global Environment Mcdonald Marketing Essay

Business Strategy In Global Environment Mcdonald Marketing Essay McDonalds is one of the worlds leading fast food makers, 1995 when Ray Kroc started the franchising system till now McDonalds have seen an era of constant growth in both in terms of reach to the customers across the globe or in terms of sales and profits. There are number of driving forces of its basic aims that kept it at above all system wide sandwich market throughout its most magnificent years. The idea of making a system of restaurants with low priced menu items available to local community in a fast, efficient and hygienic way as well as a enjoyable environment lead McDonalds to become worlds largest sandwich chain. (Marino, 2004. p.C213) After a years of hard work McDonalds has developed its customer loyalty and brand image across the world and strong financial base to counterbalance the impact of extreme competition by the similar sandwich industry players such as Subway, Burger King, Wendys. During early 1990s, when MacDonalds intensified its international operations to balance the impact of growing competition in USA, its brand image became so popular outside USA that on its opening in Beijing 1992 more than 40,000 customers flooded the restaurant. Earlier in 1990, an opening of a new restaurant in Moscow drew about 30,000 people. (Marino, 2004, p.C214) throughout 1990s McDonalds have seen many year of radical transformation in its strategic policies besides its glorious years, particularly in the later years of 1990 most of its efforts to overcome its falling performance, customer satisfaction and monetary profits resulted in further decline in brand image as well as sales. The top management launched a plan to further boost restaurants growth and diversification away from just a sandwich maker by adding no less than 40 new items in the menu. In order to achieve the target of 10 to 15 percent of profits an investment of $420 million was made to upgrade few things such as kitchen and research and development. Despite all these efforts it appeared that nothing was working to put McDonalds back on track. (Marino, 2004, p.C215) This was the first time when McDonalds posted its first time ever fourth quarter loss in 2002. It is the same time when Jim Cantalupo took over the charge of the corporation and introduced Plan to Win strategy to win back the lost empire of unprecedented history of McDonalds. Jim Cantalupo preferred to focus companys generic strategy on marketing mix of the company in order to overcome the declining brand image and negative publicity experienced just before him taking over the company. His plan focused on offering customers a better experience of enjoying their fast food as compared to competitors. (Marino, 2004) WHAT IS A BUSINESS STRATEGY By all the management scientist and academicians business strategy has been defined in many variable ways. Strategy can be simply defined as a plan to reach from one point to another or it can be as composite as the global market place. In a global corporate industry environment strategy is a complex and comprehensive framework of actions put together after careful analysis of capabilities and strengths and the environmental impacts of peripheral forces manipulate the organization (Elkin, 1998) Strategy can also be defined as a framework which steer those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization. (Tregoe Zimmerman, 1980) Leadership in a highly competitive market depends on narrowing the focus of business strategy instead of broadening it. Business strategy includes identification of organizations operational excellence, its customer intimacy, and the product leadership. These three elements are the powerful dynamics of a business strategy. (Treacy Wiersema, 1989) To achieve objects an organization can exploit its unutilised resource strength and capabilities or it can altogether develop a core competency. A companys strategy is a plan of its management to achieve and sustain a market position, conduct its operations, attract and please customers, compete successfully, and achieve organizational objectives. (Thompson Strickland, 2003, p. 3) INTERNAL STRENGTH AND RESOURCE CAPABILITIES STRENGTHS: The assessment of in-house resources of an organization is evaluated in relation to the competitors. (Thompson Strickland, 2003) MacDonalds business strategy still upholds the philosophy of Ray Crok who in 1958 said that, the basis for our entire business is that we are ethical, truthful and dependable. It takes time to build a reputation. We are not promoters. We are business people with a solid, permanent, constructive ethical program that will be in style years from now even more than it is today. ( a) Market Leadership In the fast food chains in the world McDonalds has one of the strong international presence, in the USA alone it has over 13,500 restaurants and 16,500 restaurants worldwide. It was operation in 120 countries of the world with Burger King at number two in 2002 was operating in 120 countries of the world with Burger King at number two with only 58 countries. Its operating income from worldwide operations almost compared the income from domestic operations. In USA McDonalds secured over 32 percent of the sales of top no less than 30 chains in 2003 out of which about 30 percent of the sales come from its international operations. The leadership of McDonalds amongst restaurants chains have widely been recognized and have placed it in a very strong position to increase and retain a major part of this market share. (Marino, 2004) B) Financial Strength Another very important policy of McDonalds is to own all real estates for franchised or company operated location. This gives a large rental income and asset base for the company. Beverley Vasquez in his article; McDonalds Takes Bite from its Land holding published in Denver Business Journal in 1998 says that McDonalds generate more money from its rent than from its franchise fees. (Denver Business Journal 50, p. B9) its strategy to own its real estates has given it even more control over what it can do with the land. The major advantage of this policy was to choose a piece of land to build a restaurant in any suitable location to generate maximum sales and to make financial assets and remove the impact of development McDonalds keeps about 100% of profits from company owned restaurants. (Marino, 2004) like any other company in the same business McDonalds liquidity is within the industrial standards. McDonalds current ratio in 2003 was 0.76, maintaining or improving current ratio help meet current liabilities and short term debts without putting further constraints on company operations. c) Brand Image In 2003 McDonalds brand value was placed at 8th number among worlds most valuable brand with $24.69 billion (source: interbrand). Brand image is the totality of consumer perceptions about the brand, or how they see it. Companies have to work hard on the consumer experience to make sure that what customers see and think is what they want them to. (Temporal, 2002 Marino, 2004) d) Innovative Skills In a global market place a company needs to be well aware of particular needs and requirements of the people defined by their cultural and religious affiliations and their particular eating habits. Due to changing eating habits of its customers McDonalds has improved its menus many times. This was due to many reasons such as innovation in food processing and cooking and growing health awareness in people. (Marino, 2004) Its menus in almost all countries reflect the local traditional elements and tastes. Kosher for Jewish people in Israel, introduction of low fat food across the chain, and menus according to particular French, Chinese and South American tastes are a few examples. It has integrated local eating trends and traditions successfully across the world by changing the local menus in several regions of the world, McDonalds have almost always adapted to the changes in the costumers preferences despite some of its failure to regain sales revenues in late 1990s. WEAKNESSES: a) Weak Strategic Direction Chairman and CEO Alan Greenberg took the full responsibility of its poor performance and resigned after face the first ever loss In fourth quarter 2002. The collapse was mainly cause of launching many concordant initiative and be deficient of will to completely implement them or waiting for the outcome of any particular initiative. Due to this deprived strategic decision making, management was left with no clear directions. Increased competition and hostility among the franchises forced company to review its policies regarding development, association, quality and customer services. At one stage company publicized 40 new menu items and customized cooking system which cost company a hefty $420 million. (Marino, 2004) A week strategy or failure to fittingly launch a strategy may result in a week performance of the overall business. (Thompson Strickland, 2003) If a company alter its business strategy it may result in customer confusion, price oriented customer may switch to another low cost leader if the business employing a low cost strategy shifts its focus to differentiation strategy At the same time those customers willing to pay a premium price may not identify the organizations strategic change. (Parnell, John A.,2003) b) Customer Services McDonalds discontinued its principal of restaurant evaluation system in early 1990(namely QSVC, Quality, Service, Value, and Cleanliness) in order to reduce the tension among franchises and to pave way for international growth and to improve its partnership with leading superstores. It was expected that companys image would regain When Greenberg reinstituted its Quality, Service, Cleanliness inspections and mystery shopping in 2001, but in 2002 company was ranked lesser than its main rivals including KFC, Wendys, Burger King, and even US internal revenue services. c) Revenues Losses and Share value In the start of 2003, McDonalds had to face a loss of $343.8 million in its first quarter Followed by a constant decline in revenue during 12 months to April 2003. Companys share value dipped to all time low. At one point in March 2003 it was being traded at $12.50. Putting further pressure on short term and long term liquidity and constraining the company to keep equity at sustainable level. d) Employees Turnover Employee turnover is very important in any organization accurate, efficient and quick customer service mostly relies on staff training and experience. McDonalds has 300 percent high employees turnover than industry average. This clearly means McDonalds not only have to train more than average employees but also have to wait until they are fully functional and experienced. It is 40 seconds slower than its close rival Wendys in drive-thru operation but still it generates almost 60 percent of its revenue from them. EXTERNAL MARKET FACTORS OPPORTUNITIES: a) Revenue Generation The strong worldwide presence of McDonalds provide it an opportunity to produce revenues from public offering and this was experienced successfully in case of Japan. Public offering could be phased out in 120 countries of the world once McDonalds could grow strong in each country. b) Diversification materialization of mega-store and expansion in their process has unlocked a new market segment for McDonalds retail products. Further new opportunity include launching McDonalds novelty products like watches and toys to be sold across the world and going into joint schemes with non rival companies to use MacDonalds premises to uphold their product. THREATS: a) Trends in Sandwich Restaurant industry McDonalds has faced challenges by the new trends in eating healthier food alternatives along with the other industry players. Customer dietary awareness grew after findings of various scientific researches advocating eating healthy food with lesser fats, oil and sugar contents. Sandwich chain have to keep modifying their menu in order to be concerned about customers wellbeing. McDonalds has to continue focusing on adjusting its policy to reflect healthier aspects of menu items or it could be an easy target for negative publicity. McDonalds main rivals Burger King and Wendys have addressed current consumer health trends more successfully. Particularly, Wendys has responded to this with the introduction of their gourmet salad line. Typically 30% of those consumers visiting Wendys do so specifically for the purpose of purchasing salads from their Garden Sensations salad line. (Marino, 2004) Soon after recognizing the market, the super store jumped into sandwich industry by offering read ymade meals and sandwiches at competitive prices further increasing competition for McDonalds and its rivals as well. b) Intense Competition After 2003 it was expected for systemwide sandwich industry in USA to grow around only 2 percent for foreseeable future. There was a shrinkage in local restaurant industry due to increased competition amongst traditional rivals, many chains were copying McDonalds theme at that time increasing market share was more difficult in both USA and worldwide. (Marino, 2004) a large number of customer was shifting to other low price outlets of similar quality and service as they were becoming more price conscious. The ideal condition is for the strength/ competitive assets to outweigh its weakness/ competitive liabilities by an ample margin-50/50 balance is definitely not the desired condition. (Thompson Strickland, 2003, p120) PEST ANALYSIS The analysis of macro environment in which business operates is called PEST analysis its consist of four elements Political, Economical, Social and Technological. POLITICAL FACTORS Individual state policies enforced by the government greatly influenced the international operations of McDonalds. Many groups in Europe and USA clamor for the actions taken by the state pertaining to the hygiene, health and fitness proposition of eating fast food. They have pointed out that things like cholesterol are harmful for human body and adverse effects like obesity are attributable to consuming fast food products. (ivythesis 2010) On the contrary, there are number of internal policies and regulation in order to control the company, specific segments of the market focus on different fields of concern for example environment, worker protection and specially health. In all parts of country and outside the country government check all these elements before issuance of any kind of license in the respective states. In countries like India it is a looming legal dispute in the franchise of McDonalds where certain breach of rights and violation of religious laws pertaining to the contents of the food, it is highly offensive to the Hindu religion in that region to have meat in their menus. There are also other studies that points to the infringement of McDonalds Stores with reference to the existing employment laws in the target market. Like any business venture, these McDonalds stores have to contend with the issues of employment procedures as well as their tax obligations so as to succeed in the foreign market. (ivyth esis 2010) ECONOMIC FACTORS It is seen that there are always numerous problem available to fast food industry and no organization in this business are excused for any disputes and troubles, all have concerns up to certain extant regarding economic factors individually. Branches and franchises of fast food chains like McDonalds are likely to experience difficulties in case the economy of any country is hit by inflation and a rapid change in exchange rates. In conditions like this customer have to go over the usual budget and they have to think whether or not they should use up more of these foreign fast food chains therefore these businesses must think of some solutions to deal with the effects of the economic environment specially when the problem are caused by the consumer behavior these issue can lead to a serious problem as it could influence their general sales. In regarding the operations of the company, food chains like McDonalds tend to import much of their raw materials into a specific territory if ther e is a dearth of supply.   Exchange rate fluctuations will also play a significant role in the operations of the company. if a franchise operates in a particularly economically weak state, hence their products shall cost higher than the other existing products in the market, then these franchises must take on certain adjustments to maintain the economies of scale. (ivythesis 2010) SOCIAL FACTORS The surveys and articles on the international strategies of McDonalds have been working in many areas to assure worthwhile returns for the organization. The company put so much effort to improve on establishing a favorable mind set from their basic consumer. McDonalds indulge a particular variety of consumers with definite types of personalities. It has also seen that McDonalds has provide the market such as United Kingdom an extra option in their dining needs and requirements as they have introduced a valued and reasonable set of food that affectionate a reliable level of quality for the respective market where it operates.   Additionally, those who are aged just below the bracket of thirty-five are said to be the most frequent consumers of McDonalds franchises. ( 2005) TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS McDonalds produces demand for their own products. Television advertisement is one of the companys key tool for marketing. It has also been seen that McDonalds are inclined to the interest the younger populations more, this can been seen in different ways such as distribution of toys in their meals offered by the company and the existence of play spots in the restaurant areas. Similar demonstrations can be seen in the commercial they make it clearly reflects their marketing strategy. They employ animated depictions of their characters like Grimace and Hamburglar. On the other hand they hire popular celebrities in order to promote their products. Their campaign regarding their logo Im Loving it is renowned across the globe and is recognized well in people of all ages. Moreover McDonalds has significantly been infused with new technology in their operating system and their biggest achievement is to introduce a Just In Time strategy Elements like the inventory system and the management o f the value chain of the company allows for easy payments for their suppliers and other vendors which the individual stores in respective markets deal with. The integration of technology in the operations of McDonalds tend to add value to their products. Basically, this is manifested in the improvements on its value chain. The improvement of the inventory system as well as its supply chain allows the company to operate in an international context. (ivythesis 2010) FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS 1. Rivalry Amongst Existing Competitors It has been seen that the competition in restaurant industry is too high as there are large number of many fast food businesses that are fighting with each other in order to get the bigger market share and to improve their customer base, McDonalds is not an exception to this, it has excelled in this sector of the market since its commencement in 1940. Nevertheless to stay competitive they started with McCafe and gained a huge success as a fast food providers. Another major step came out when McDonald started Breakfast to compete with the existing business serving breakfast. Hence, this industry is extremely competitive and the MDC should be up to date with customer taste preferences.(quickmba 2010) 2. Threat of Entrants It is hard to set up a different brand name as well as to enter the restaurant business, The cost of entry in the market is extremely high there is big research and development costs. Large established companies with strong brand identities such as McDonalds do make it more difficult to enter and succeed within the marketplace, it is difficult for new entrants to find their place as they are faced with price competition from existing chain restaurants.(quickmba 2010) 3. Threat of Substitutes There are many substitutes in this industry. Since there are a wide variety of products that people can choose, they could either be substituted by MDC Burgers, Beverages, dairy products, and others. 4. Bargaining Power of Suppliers Power of suppliers within the fast food industry would be relatively small, unless the main ingredient of the product is not readily available. 5. Bargaining Power of Buyers Relatively strength of buyers is low in this industry SCHOOLS OF STRATEGY Mintzberg, Ahlstrand and Lampel discuss various approaches to strategic planning and they identify 10 different schools of thought which are divided into Prescriptive and Descriptive. We can apply Prescriptive schools for Strategy formulation and Descriptive School for Strategy formation. A) PRESCRIPTIVE SCHOOLS Prescriptive means what can be done most realistically. The prescriptive strategy takes other factors into consideration while analyzing multiple criteria and conflicting objections. After this, then chooses what strategy would or could be done realistically based on the objectives previously listed. According to the prescriptive strategy, the second best decision might be more appropriate. The prescriptive approach includes an analysis of possible decisions around a chosen solution known as sensitivity analysis. 1. Design School: This strategy is adopted by McDonalds in a way they have matched their internal situation of the company with the outside situation caused by the environment. Thus the strategy of the company is made and function to signify the best likely fit. 2. Planning School: Here strategy arrangement is seen as a prescribed procedure, which follows a thorough set of steps from scrutiny of the condition to the growth and exploration of different substitute scenarios. 3. Positioning School: This is very important approach as it is very much influenced by the Porters work, formation of strategy as an logical process that place the organization in the same context of the business the company is in, McDonald as a business used this as a strong tool of their strategy. B) DESCRIPTIVE SCHOOLS Descriptive means what is usually done. The descriptive strategy is done based on past evidence. It is something that has been most likely done in the past. 1. Entrepreneurial School: In McDonalds this approach look upon strategy formation as a visionary process, that is going on within the mind of the captivating founder or leader of the company. 2. Learning School: The whole function of this strategy is to educate people where the management of an the company take care of the workers that they work efficiently and does not work over time and incorporates these lessons learned into their overall plan of action. 3. Power School: Here strategy progress is appear to be a process of cooperation between power holders within the company, and or between the company and external stakeholders. 4. Cultural School: This strategy talk about developing a culture that makes the working condition comfortable for all this school takes the strategy formation as collective process that includes multiple groups and departments within the organization the strategy developed is thus a reflection of the corporate culture of the organization. 5. Environmental School: In response to the current challenges imposed by the external environment, this strategy structuring is seen to be a reactive process. 6. Configuration School: This is the last school and the purpose of strategy formation can be easily seen as method of altering the organization from one type of decision making structure into another. CONCLUSION McDonalds have increase its product line to ensure they have multiple products to choose form and to remain competitive to their rivals, and have focused to provide better and continuous service, they also have reduced their cost by reducing their supply chain expenses. In order to retain customers they have expanded their happy meal choices and took further step by adding premium and different coffees in their beverages menu as well as cakes and pastries. The concept of toys introduced by McDonalds for all kind of generations specially for kids was new to everyone in the market. As a suggestion they must provide special promotion during the festivals, apart from organizing birthday parties they should move on to one step ahead in organizing or sponsoring college festivals. After analyzing the marketing mix of McDonalds, it is clear that the company can be said to be `global, i.e. combining elements of globalization and internationalization. McDonalds have achieved this through apply ing the maxim, `think global, act local REFERENCE Marino, L. Jackson, K.B., 2004; McDonalds: Polishing the Golden Arches, p. c213-c234, Case Study 13, Thompson A. A. Strickland, A. J., 2004, Strategic Management, Concept and Cases, 13th Edition, McGraw Hill †¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Thompson A. A. Strickland, A.J., 2003, Strategic Management, Concept and Cases, 13th Edition, McGraw Hill. †¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Johnson, Gerry Scholes, Kevan; 2002, Exploring Corporate Strategy, Text and Cases, 6th Edition, FT-Prentice Hal †¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Hooley, G.J., Saunders, J.A. Piercy, N. (2004) Marketing strategy and Competitive Positioning. 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Saturday, January 18, 2020

Of Mice And Men – Crooks PEE Paragraph

Racism was a strong form of prejudice in the 1930’s, and throughout the novel is violently used against the stable buck Crooks. From his first introduction in the book, he is constantly being described and treated like an animal. In the first description of Crooks’ room in chapter 4, it is referred to as ‘A little shed that leans off the wall of the barn’. This gives the impression that Crooks is not important enough to sleep with the other ranch hands, and must be isolated and separated from them: giving him no other choice but to sleep with the animals: creatures that are on the same level of the hierarchy as him.Also, Crooks’ possessions reflect this image. His bed is described as ‘a long box of straw’ which implies that Crooks isn’t worth his own bed, and must settle for a horse’s trough: something that even a horse doesn’t sleep in, but eats out of. As well as this, most of his other possessions don’t eve n belong directly to him. For example, ‘a broken harness in process of being mended; strips of new leather’ and ’a range of medicine bottles, both for him and the horses.’This shows that even his own room, isn’t fully his own room, and that he has to share it with the horses; suggesting that even the horses are more important than Crooks as even they have the power to invade crooks’ space. It could also mean that all of crooks’ possessions are considered just as worthless as a horses ‘broken harness’. This shows the reader that crooks means no more to the ranch hands than one of the other horses.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Maths in Everyday Life Essay

You may find yourself wondering what use we have for some of the knowledge we obtain from math class in school. It is sometimes difficult for students to appreciate the importance of Mathematics. They often find the subject boring and hard to understand. With this project we will hopefully help our students realize that Mathematics is not just a subject on their time-table but a tool they use in their everyday life. â€Å"Mathematics is one of the first things you learn in life. Even as a baby you learn to count. Starting from that tiny age you will start to learn how to use building blocks how to count and then move on to drawing objects and figures. Through the years, and probably through the centuries, teachers have struggled to make math meaningful by providing students with problems and examples demonstrating its applications in everyday life. Now, however, technology makes it possible for students to experience the value of math in daily life, instead of just reading about it. Math is everywhere and yet, we may not recognize it because it doesn’t look like the math we did in school. Math in the world around us sometimes seems invisible. But math is present in our world all the time–in the workplace, in our homes, and in life in general. When you buy a car, follow a recipe, or decorate your home, you’re using math principles. This presentation also, is prepared using the principles of math. Math applies to daily life, with sections on gambling odds, buying and leasing cars, population growth, decorating, and cooking. Most sections include hands-on activities. Formulas are a part of our lives. Whether we drive a car and need to calculate the distance, or need to work out the volume in a milk container, algebraic formulas are used every day without you even realizing it. Simply put, mathematics is about relationships. Mathematicians have developed a language of precise relationships, illustrated through their formulas and equations. We live in a world where so far, as we have observed, everything is related and everything is experienced as different. We can learn about relationships in our world by looking at mathematical relationships that seem to match the situation being explored. For instance there is a relationship between distance traveled, time of travel, and speed of travel. Mathematics provides a relatively simple equation: Distance traveled = average speed multiplied by time of travel In simpler mathematical terms, d = s x t Math involves data analysis, number relationships and graphing, patterns and functions, statistics, and measurement. People who use math in their work, it doesn’t occur that often that you’d need to calculate 7 x 7 x 7 x 7 or 0. 1 x 0. 1 x 0. 1 x 0. 1 x 0. 1 or other such calculations. One example of how math do kind of connect with our everyday lives: when we speak about square feet, square meters, square inches, square miles, square kilometers or any other area units, or when we speak about cubic feet, cubic meters, cubic centimeters or any other such volume units. If you talk about SQUARE shaped areas, for example if you say â€Å"My room is twelve by twelve square†, you’re meaning your room is 12 feet x 12 feet, or 122 square feet. I believe one reason that mathematics is not more generally applied has to do with a tendency to ‘think’ of mathematics only in terms of numbers, precision, quantification, and so on. We forget that mathematics is also about relationships, relatedness, relationships between relationships, interconnections, dependency (functions), changing relationships (calculus), factors that constitute relationships (variables), structure (order, relationships), asymmetric relationships (order), (graphical, numerical, and other representations (mapping), increase and decrease (addition, subtraction , multiplication, division, etc. ) and so on. The notion of a â€Å"function† is another mathematical tool we can apply to our everyday situations. Function in mathematics has to do with â€Å"relationships between variables – how a dependent variable changes when related variables change. In a simple equation y=3x, if we change the value of x, then y changes. Y is called the dependent variable, and x the independent variable. In other words the value of y depends on the value we give to x. And in this equation, we can give x any value we choose. In our everyday living, we do many things that are related to other things – although not as precisely as in mathematics – and we give values, assign meanings, and so on. Our whole living involves relationships. Our successes are a function of our efforts. The way others treat us is a function of how we behave towards them. Meanings, values, significance, understanding, etc. , are functions of ‘time’ – more specifically information available at a ‘time’. In a world where as far as we know everything is related, we can learn a lot about our everyday relationships by studying the approaches of a system that deals specifically with relationships. Variables and functions are only two examples of a vast number of other mathematics approaches we can apply to better understanding our everyday relationships. Math applies to daily life, with sections on gambling odds, buying and leasing cars, population growth, decorating, and cooking. Most sections include hands-on activities. One of the most complete and self-sufficient math units on the Web is Project Sky Math: Making Mathematical Connections — Using the Science and Language of Patterns to Explore the Weather. They study the history of weather prediction, develop symbol sets, prepare graphs, predict changes, solve problems, and discover rules. General semantics involves applying the methods of science and mathematics to our everyday living. For instance, if we ‘think’ of things – anything – in terms of the â€Å"variable†, we will come to realize that like the mathematical variable that is sometimes a higher value and sometimes a lower value, we should expect things and situations to change. Sometimes this change will occur in the way we like; other times not. Sometimes more than we expect, sometimes less. Sometimes we will observe no significant change. We can expect our moods and ‘feelings’ to vary. ‘Thinking’ in terms of the variable better prepares us to anticipate and manage changes in our lives. This could reduce a great deal of stress in our lives – stress related to our forgetting that thing-processes are not constants. Family, partners, friends, work situations, health, etc. , won’t stay the way we found them or the way we expect them to go. ‘Thinking’ in terms of the variable, we would expect variations in our lives, and situations to vary related to different ‘time’, ‘places’, contexts, and so on. It is important to keep in ‘mind’ that with regards to our everyday relationships, unlike mathematical equations, precision is not the important factor-variable here. Important factors involve recognizing relationships, interconnections, and â€Å"interdependencies†. An important factor is to be aware that we assign our own individual values to what we see, hear, read, and so on. We could avoid, or better manage many conflicts, by remembering variables and functions. There are lots of real uses of mathematics in our life. All the mathematics terms base on counting. Today our all businesses base on counting. There is no concept of business without mathematics. Before the mathematics rules people use barter system. They give their goods to others and take the goods from other people. But this system cannot continue longer when need of humans increased day by day. Now you can think that counting has vital role in our daily life, just imagine if there were no mathematics at all, how it would be possible for us to count days, months and years. There is a cost for everything that we may use or purchase from markets so what’s a cost? What are utility bills? What’s the ticket price? These are all applications of mathematics. We cannot deny the importance of mathematics in our daily life. When we got to shop to purchase something we need mathematics. When someone comes to our shop to purchase something we need calculations. There are many uses of mathematics in real life most likely in jobs like accounting, banking , store manager or just working at a simple fast food store. These are very simple applications of mathematics. Mathematics is at the core of all the communication technologies, it’s used in accounting, finance etc in short we are using mathematics in some form or another everywhere in our daily lives. But the most important use of mathematics in our technologies cannot be contradicted. Our most of the system base on computers and all the computer technology are stands on mathematical rules. All computers work on binary code, code of zero and one. So we cannot deny the importance of mathematics in real life. Everyday life would be quite difficult if you had no knowledge of math. To know what’s the time, the most precious thing. On a basic level you need to able to count your money, multiply, subtract and divide. You need knowledge of math if you want to work out how much material to buy for a job. More advanced mathematics is essential if you take up any kind of technical career such as engineering. Working on algebra and geometry also helps with reasoning skills and assists later in life with technical problem solving. Living your day to day life without maths would be extremely difficult. Even if you were a nomad in the desert you would want to count your goats, wouldn’t you? The key to opportunity These are the years of small beginnings until the day comes that you have to be able to do something as intricate as algebra. Math is the key that will unlock the door before you. Having the ability to do algebra will help you excel into the field that you want to specialize in. We live in a world where only the best succeed. Having the ability and knowledge to do algebra will determine whether you will take the short cut or the detour in the road of life. Prerequisite for advanced training Most employers expect their employees to be able to do the fundamentals of algebra. If you want to do any advanced training you will have to be able to be fluent in the concept of letters and symbols used to represent quantities. Science Moreover, it is also believed that ‘Mathematics is the mother of all sciences’. This also shows us that all the sciences that are evolved have a sound foundation in mathematics, if we go further in debate it would be justified to say that the blessings of all these modern sciences and technologies are only possible with mathematics. Mathematics is used as a problem solver in every field of science. Mathematics is playing a very important role in our daily lives. In fact mathematics is involved directly or indirectly wherever we go and every thing that we may use. When doing any form of science, whether just a project or a lifetime career choice, you will have to be able to do and understand how to use and apply the concepts of math. Analysis When it comes to analyzing anything, whether the cost, price or profit of a business you will need to be able to do math. Margins need to be set and calculations need to be made to do strategic planning and analyzing is the way to do it. Data entry What about the entering of any data. Your use of algebraic expressions and the use of equations will be like a corner stone when working with data entry. When working on the computer with spreadsheets you will need algebraic skills to enter, design and plan. Decision making Decisions like which cell phone provider gives the best contracts to deciding what type of vehicle to buy, you will use algebra to decide which one is the best one. By drawing up a graph and weighing the best option you will get the best value for your money. Interest Rates How much can you earn on an annual basis with the correct interest rate. How will you know which company gives the best if you can’t work out the graphs and understand the percentages. In today’s life a good investment is imperative. Writing of assignments When writing any assignments the use of graphs, data and math will validate your statements and make it appear more professional. Professionalism is of the essence if you want to move ahead and be taken seriously. Math is basically about solving problems and calculating different things. So if you are good in math, you are good at solving problems and calculating things first hand. Can you see the importance of algebra? Your day can be made a lot easier with planning. In financial decisions this can save you a lot of finances or maybe get you the best price available. It all comes down to planning and using the knowledge and algebraic skills you have to benefit your own life. Use the key you have and make your life a lot smoother. Mathematics is very important for life since it helps us to quantify all the visible and invisible things with which we are dealing in daily life. It is human nature that they do not have complete confidence in the subjective or relative things, in the modern day of today the objective things are preferred and trusted more than the subjective things. Mathematics helps us to have an objective view of the different things we are dealing with. It helps us in making calculations about the things which are not physically developed like for buildings before construction. Living a life unknowing ‘Maths’ would be living in random oblivion. Mathematics is primarily used for the purpose of scientific calculation of figures and objects. In real life the use of Mathematics can be applicable to every aspect, field, profession and subject etc. In IT field, in Statistics, in Accounts, in Algebra, in Geometry, for instance, Mathematics is used for calculating, multiplying, subtracting, division, differentiating, manipulating and managing the data in desired form. In other professions Mathematics can merely be used for the calculation of currency, recording the profits and loss. In ordinary life Mathematics can be used for the calculation of any specific or general sort. Concisely it can be said that Mathematics can be used for the authentic and scientific variation between and calculation of numbers, amounts, quantities etc; measurements of the frequencies of light and sound, of distance. Maths is all around us. It is present in different forms; it is very important that we take note of it. Things are measured or accurate due to maths. Mathematics has a prominent role to play in our daily life. We even didn’t realize that maths is involves in every sort of activities. Whenever we pick up the phone, manage the money, travel to some other place, unintentionally in all these things maths is involved. Another very simple application is calendar year. How we know that today is Tuesday? It was Thursday on May 1, 2012? It’s actually mathematics that gives/provides us all this information. Mathematics do play a big part in our daily lives. Mathematical functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and so on are used in our daily activities. From poor to rich , all have to some how use mathematics in their real lives. Consider a housewife, who has to run her house in the given budget. She divides money according to her needs and estimates about the expenses and then spends it according her range. From the advent of civilization, man learn to count using stones and beads. In the earliest civilization, barter-system was used. Now-a-days, all day to day transactions in a multi-national or national companies involve mathematical operations . The application of maths is seen every moment, right from the moment we wake up from bed in the morning till the moment we again go back to bed at night. As soon as we wake up, we first of all give a big yawn-that makes us think for how long we have yawned? –3 to 5 seconds? Here maths comes! Again when we look at the clock, we realise how late we have got up! –8:30 a. m! Here the part called Time of mathematics is put to focus. Even when we brush our teeth, we should know how much amount of toothpaste we must use–it’s written on the tubes that children below the age of 6 years should use only a pea-sized amount of it. Again, we must keep a track of how much time we have to take to brush our teeth. Then comes the time of studying.. we keep a regular routine of how long we must study a particular subject and i often hear my mom saying me. â€Å"You must keep a little extra time for Maths and Science.. â€Å"Then comes bathing—we take a certain amount of water which we can count in litres. Now if i have to go on saying for the whole day about the use of maths in real life, i would not be able to complete it in a day! The list is endless. Mathematics is very important for life since it helps us to quantify all the visible and invisible things with which we are dealing in daily life. It is human nature that they do not have complete confidence in the subjective or relative things, in the modern day of today the objective things are preferred and trusted more than the subjective things. Mathematics helps us to have an objective view of the different things we are dealing with. It helps us in making calculations about the things which are not physically developed like for buildings before construction. We do calculations and ensure if their design is safe or not, similarly mathematics helps us to plan things for future either is any production environment for products or services. It helps us to have an idea that how much earning or spending has been done and would it be beneficial to do a certain activity or not. In today’s world mathematics is being applied everywhere like in the economy of a country, construction of buildings, marking and evaluation of persons. It would be appropriate to say that mathem atics has helped a lot in achieving the fast speed life with all its comforts and delights If we are quick at mental arithmetic, it will help you a lot in saving hundreds of pounds or dollars in the supermarket. And if you have knowledge of statistics it will help you see through the baloney (non sense, lies) in television adverts or newspapers. You can also understand different kinds of information about the football or cricket team. Even simple maths equations are just around us, like spherical shapes of soap bubbles, ripples on the surface of water. Maths help engineer in making different shapes with geometrical shape the structure of the building was not possible. The beauty of maths is not only around us but a strong know how of maths help us in every day life too. Just start looking around you and you will find that how maths is help full to you in your life We do calculations and ensure if their design is safe or not, similarly mathematics helps us to plan things for future either is any production environment for products or services. It helps us to have an idea that how much earning or spending has been done and would it be beneficial to do a certain activity or not. In today’s world mathematics is being applied everywhere like in the economy of a country, construction of buildings, marking and evaluation of persons. It would be appropriate to say that mathematics has helped a lot in achieving the fast speed life with all its comforts and delights. Without math, one would not be able to function in the REAL world. We use math to purchase things we want, we use math to measure, tell time and so on. We all need the basics but having a more advanced knowledge in math such as geometry, algebra and metric system always helps. As they say knowledge is ‘priceless. Without math, one would not be able to function in the real  world. We use math to purchase things we want, we use math to measure, tell time and so on. We all need the basics but having a more advanced knowledge in math such as geometry, algebra and metric system always helps. As they say knowledge is ‘priceless. ‘ Without math, one would not be able to function in the real  world. We use math to purchase things we want, we use math to measure, tell time and so on. We all need the basics but having a more advanced knowledge in math such as geometry, algebra and metric system always helps. As they say knowledge is ‘priceless. ‘

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Problem Of Extreme Consumerism - 926 Words

Consuming goods and services play the biggest role in the economic system. There undoubtedly wouldn’t be and economic system without the consumption of goods and services. Every day, all over the world, there is an extreme amount of consumerism, but why exactly? What are the possible causes of extreme consumerism? Some of the few possible causes contributing to mass consumerism would include: the want for consumption, the need for consumption, and possibly even hoarders. Although many of the possible causes listed above tie together, it’s quite interesting exploring these causes of extreme consumerism and being able to shine a small light on the subject. As mentioned, extreme consumerism is what makes the economy, but what plays an extreme role in consumption? What makes people want to buy the variety of products and services that are on the market today? The answer to that would be the want for goods and the advertisement of those products. Everywhere you look there ar e advertisements whether they are in the newspaper, on social media, or the sign passing you as you drive down the street. It’s almost impossible to not see an advertisement on a daily basis. Advertisement play on emotions, logic, and authority to promote and make products and or services appealing. These types of advertisements can cause so many people, almost anyone and everyone, want to buy what they are selling causing people to buy, buy, and buy. Even with the appealing ads that’s not all thatShow MoreRelated`` Brave New World `` By Aldous Huxley1355 Words   |  6 Pagessuch as materialistic things or drugs in efforts to escape from their problems for a while. Thus, making it seem as if people would rather be surrounded with the fabrication of happiness rather than accepting the truth and facing one’s problems. Incidentally, consumerism has been defined as, â€Å"the perpetuated idea that you cannot be happy unless you surround yourself with things†. The human tendency of succumbing to consumerism and ignoring reality in order to preserve industrialized happiness hasRead MorePros And Cons1042 Words   |  5 PagesInvestigations have shown that inconceivable catastrophic changes will take place if the global temperature continues to rise. The polar ice caps are already melting, which can lead to rising sea levels. In addition, extreme weather such as droughts, floods, and storms will become a huge problem. The world will become uninhabitable. The Paris Agreement is an accord within the United Nations that deals with the overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, this accord also includes a plan asRead MoreNegative Effects Of Consumerism On Society825 Words   |  4 PagesConsumerism plays an extreme role in today’s economy and society. It is one of the key aspects of the economy growing, however it negatively affects the people of society. Consumerism has taken over society, with peoples’ need to classify themselves in a certain social status with the purchases of expensive merchandise. It may help the economy thrive, however it is society’s downfall with its depressing need to buy unnecessary products. Through modern technology, consumerism can easily capture peopleRead MoreThe Christian Disciple, A Follower Of Jesus1217 Words   |  5 Pagesobedience to Christ and His teachings. The faithful disciple places absolute trust in God while he embarks on a quest for a fulfilling life ri ch in virtue and happiness. Discipleship specifically emphasizes a simplistic lifestyle focused on rejecting consumerism and giving to those in need. In practicing asceticism, however, a follower of Jesus is faced with the decision between two separate Christian lifestyles: rigorous discipleship and responsible consumption. While both of these adaptations center onRead MoreThe Evils of Consumerism Essay1114 Words   |  5 Pagesspend larger amounts of money. Recently invented items, such as cars, also contributed to this dramatic rise of consumerism that occurred during this period. Advertising campaigns helped to fuel the demand for the newly invented items. However, many economists believe that this over indulgence and over spending were harbingers to the Great Depression of the 1930s. The consumerism in the 1920s paved the way for a changing life style and attitude over money and spending in America. Many AmericansRead MoreAmerican Rock N Roll Essay1578 Words   |  7 P agesdepression was replaced by a youthful optimistic spirit, which allowed for expression of self among the youth of American society. The optimistic spirit offered by pop culture icons allowed the youth to recover from a society which condemned them. An extreme example of this condemnation is the Kent state massacre of 1970 where 4 students were killed and 9 were wounded ( Staff 2009). Fashion, particularly the mini skirt, was the largest expression of Pop. The mini skirt displayed multiple PopRead MoreConsumerism Is Not Harmful At Times1364 Words   |  6 Pages Consumerism, the theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically desirable: a preoccupation with an inclination toward the buying of consumer goods, has been increasing over the last few decades. Although many individuals feel that the increase of can be hurtful to financial wellness, this is not always the truth. The consumption of goods and services is what allows the economic markets to flow f reely and thrive as well as survive. Not to say that induvial consumerism is not harmfulRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lorax By Dr. Seuss1322 Words   |  6 Pagesjoyful, colorful, book for toddlers and kids that was read before bedtime was far more controversial than someone who just cuts down trees. It has a secret message that goes right over the readers’ heads - concern about the environment through consumerism. The Lorax is about a preteen, Ted, who lives in an urbanized neighborhood where there is no vegetation except for inflatable bushes. The girl he likes wants a tree for her birthday, and he searches for a seed. Ted ends up leaving the town limitsRead MoreHunger : The Problem Of Hunger1488 Words   |  6 PagesKnowing that the world produces enough food to feed everyone, it is illogical that hunger has been one of the major problems throughout human history affecting and killing 8.2 million people each year. â€Å"Every 10 seconds a human being dies from hunger.†(Cogan) It is thought that this mostly happens in undeveloped countries but surprisingly â€Å"about 98% of the 842 million people starving actually live in developing countries† (Cogan). A long time ago, these terms were related to the lower social classesRead MoreWall-E versus Feed on Society1223 Words   |  5 PagesFeed and Pixar’s Wall-E, exaggerate a society influenced by technology using both simi lar and different story lines. Environment, consumerism, and the characters share similar qualities in Feed and Wall-E. In Feed, M.T. Anderson overstresses a polluted society that languishes in an â€Å"intricately rendered city† with a dying environment (Scott 1). He writes of an extreme point where the world needs air factories to live. While Violet is talking to her father she realizes, â€Å"‘the forest’s gone. Yeah

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Social Security System - 1442 Words

Dear Congresswoman Ann Wagner (R), â€Å"All peoples throughout all of human history have faced the uncertainties brought on by unemployment, illness, disability, death and old age. In the realm of economics, these inevitable facets of life are said to be threats to one s economic security†- (www. The 1935 Social Security Act was a giant step towards creating an economic security for the nation. However, as a person who has yet to be in the work force for 10 years I have already begun to realize that my comfort in retirement cannot rely on government funding, there are those whoever, who will rely entirely on that funding. Due to the differences in people’s willingness to take their futures under their own control, I would suggest reform in the fashion of partial privatization. Without this reform Social Security will not survive into the 21st century. The current state of the social security system, while its history comes from a well-intentioned source, has been negatively impacted by many issues in recent years. â€Å"The Social Security program s has many benefits: retirement and disability income, Medicare and Medicaid, death and survivor benefits. INVESTOPEDA These are important benefits to have for the wellbeing of the country as a whole. However due to demographic changes resulting in fewer workers paying into the program and more recipients taking benefits out, the available benefits are becoming scarce CITE. The rules of supply and demand are showing aShow MoreRelatedPrivatization Of Social Security System846 Words   |  4 Pages The social security system, established by the federal government in 1935; is currently one of the most costly items in the federal budget. The purpose of the system is to provide for Federal old-age benefits, and to enable social insurance and public assistance. The proposal of moving to an entirely new system would give the people living in the United States their own individual authority of controlling their own investments. If social security does not become privatized; the system itself willRead MoreThe American Social Security System880 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Social Security system is projected to help people with limited financial resources, including the poor, the physically disabled, the mentally ill, and the elderly (Grabianowski 2015). It was created in response to the pervasive poverty during the Great Depression to provide workers with a basic level of income in retirement, as well as disability pay and life insurance while they work (Kessler, 2014). In addition to providing benefits for workers, it also covers their dependents, immediateRead MorePrivatization Of Social Security System846 Words   |  4 Pagesfederal government in 1935, the social security system is currently one of the most costly items in the federal budget. The purpose of t he system is to provide for Federal old-age benefits, and to enable social insurance and public assistance. The proposal of moving to an entirely new system would give the people living in the United States their own individual authority of controlling their own investments. If social security does not become privatized; the system itself will turn unsustainable,Read MoreSocial Security And The Welfare System2072 Words   |  9 Pagesrecipient of Social Security benefits. At that time the surpluses generated each year will cease, and Social Security will begin to run a deficit (paying out more than it takes in). The government will then have to begin paying back the money borrowed from the trusts, plus interest. Since no money has been saved for this purpose, the government will be forced to increase the national debt, cut spending, or raise taxes. â€Å"Even worse, unless something is done, the entire Social Security system will useRead MoreReform for the Social Security System E ssay872 Words   |  4 Pages The Social Security System is in need of a new reform; our current system was not designed for the age stratification we have at this time. The U.S. Social Security Administration Office of Policy states, â€Å"The original Social Security Act, signed into law on August 14, 1935, grew out of the work of the Committee on Economic Security, a cabinet-level group appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt just one year earlier. The Act created several programs that, even today, form the basis for theRead MoreThe Issues Surrounding The System Of Social Security1638 Words   |  7 PagesThe issues surrounding the system of social security are beginning to form a powder keg that is waiting to explode. Problems that continue to build will only present a greater threat in later years than they do now. The â€Å"baby-boomer† generation is too large of a size to be supported by social security with how it is currently structured. If we continue down this path, by the year 2037 So cial Security will only be capable of funding seventy-five percent of its obligations (Matthews, NOLO). ToRead MoreEconomic Feasibility of the Social Security System1423 Words   |  6 PagesWill Social Security Survive the 21st Century? With all the concerns surrounding the economic feasibility of the Social Security system, perhaps the question should be asked whether the Social Security system would last another 20 years if drastic changes were not made soon. In the years leading up to 2011, when the first baby boomers would be eligible to start receiving Social Security benefits, alarms began to sound that the system was headed for trouble as this new deluge of retires, totallyRead MoreThe Social Security System For The Elderly Citizens Essay1164 Words   |  5 PagesThe Social Security System is in need of a new reform; our current system was not designed for the age stratification we have at this time. The U.S. Social Security Administration Office of Policy states, â€Å"The original Social Security Act, signed into law on August 14, 1935, grew out of the work of the Committee on Economic Security, a cabinet-level group appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt just one year earlier. The Act created seve ral programs that, even today, form the basis for the governmentRead MoreThe Social Security System Pre Sjsn1890 Words   |  8 Pagessignificant differences between the social security system pre-SJSN (as shown in Table 3.2) and under SJSN period. First, the beneficiaries. In the old system, for example, a programme managed by Askes, the beneficiaries are limited to particular groups like civil servants. In contrast, under BPJS Health, all Indonesian people are entitled to receive the benefits of health care. Another difference is the special treatment to people who belong to poor households. In the old system, persons in this categoryRead MoreThe Social Security System During The Great Depression875 Words   |  4 PagesThe Social Security system is projected to help people with limited financial resources, including the poor, the physically disabled, the mentally ill, and the elderly (Grabianowski 2015). The system was created in response to the pervasive poverty during the gr eat depression, to provide basic level of income at retirement, as well as disability pay and life insurance foe workers (Kessler, 2014). In addition, the system provided benefits for dependents, immediate family members, and even divorced

Monday, December 16, 2019

The Bone Of Conflict For Criticism On Feminism - 2546 Words

Estenes 1 Joseph Estenes Professor Hayward English 151-DL1 5/13/17 The Trifles of Feminism Criticism Introduction The bone of conflict for criticism on feminism s activist hypothesis is focused on the treatment of ladies living in a patriarchal society. Feminism s activists brought up issues regarding why women were being constrained into a place of subordination, and their problems took a gander at with minimal significance. Susan Glaspell s story Trifles portrays the predicament of ladies and their subordination while subversively remarking on the negative impacts this had on the female mind. Trifles starts with an examination concerning the murder of John Wright, which happens at his homestead house. His better half, Mrs.†¦show more content†¦Diminishes: Oh, her natural product; it froze. She stressed over that when it turned so cool. She said the terminated go out and her jugs would break. Sound: Well, ladies are accustomed to stressing over Trifles (Glaspell, 1043). The women voice is hushed by the man s inability to perceive her worries as real. At the point when given a fear fro m a lady, rather than focusing, the people reject the women and their perceptions and quiet them from talking further. This distances the women, putting them in a lower status. Of this Luce Irigaray say, An immediate female test to this condition implies requesting to talk as a (masculine) subject, that is, it intends to propose a connection to the comprehensible that would keep up sexual distinction (570). By Glaspell taking an interest in the ordinance of writing and conveying regard for the female issue of subordination, she is testing and requesting to talk in masculine terms, as guys ruled paper. As indicated by Judith Fetterley American Literature is male. Our writing neither allows ladies to sit unbothered nor enables them to take part (561). Glaspell smashes this. She is taking an interest in a sort of artistry that was seen as overwhelmingly male. Additionally, she not just gave her female characters a participatory part, they had the most critical role, while the men were auxiliary and practically unnecessary. Addressing the quieting of voices, Glaspell expresses, Mrs. Peters:Show MoreRelatedMargaret Atwood s Happy Endings1447 Words   |  6 Pagesaround the roles of women, while some interpret it that a functional story needs character development and a purpose. In essence, Atwood’s role as a civil right activist influenced her short story â€Å"Happy Endings†, which is a social and literary criticism, exposing humanity’s inherent desire for results rather than the process of the journey itself. Atwood’s inspiration for her early works depicts her feminist views, attributing her role as a civil activist. Always interested in civil activism, AtwoodRead MoreThe Violence Of Black Lives2507 Words   |  11 PagesNonetheless, BLM does receive a great number of criticisms. Some people point out that it wouldn t last. The movement is blamed for its having no coherent structure and no powerful leadership that it will eventually fail. Opponents said that Black Lives Matter actually worsened race relations in America, pointing to the polls that show Americans opinions about race relations being worse in recent years, but BLM supporters asserted just because they have pointed out racism in America doesn t meanRead MoreTheme Comparison3403 Words   |  14 Pagesâ€Å"The Necklace† and â€Å"The Story of an Hour† use different forms of literary works like a short story and a poem to express gender roles in marriage. Short stories consist of myths, legends, fables, parables, and tales. They usually feature a plot with conflict, setting, a clear time frame, characters, a point of view, theme, and stylistic features. Short stories are usually considered a fictional narrative with a formal design, however; they are tending to resemble more on real-life situations (ClugstonRead MoreCosi Madness5345 Words   |  22 Pagesfreaked out she did. See, I figured Id wait a couple of hours till the cats were dead and mum was feeling a bit sorry for herself, and Id go up to the front door and Id knock on it and Id say, Hi, Mum! Im here to talk about our unresolved conflicts. Doug: But oh no, One of those FUCKING cats ran into the house; a couple of minutes the whole bloody house was on fire. Within half an hour there was no front door to knock on. Doug: Yeah, if it wasnt for that damn cat, I wouldnt be in hereRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pageslate 1860s to the 1890s, as well as the social tensions and political rivalries that generated and were in turn fed by imperialist expansionism, one cannot begin to comprehend the causes and consequences of the Great War that began in 1914. That conflict determined the contours of the twentieth century in myriad ways. On the one hand, the war set in motion transformative processes that were clearly major departures from those that defined the nineteenth-century world order. On the other, it perverselyRead MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words   |  75 Pagesmonarchs of the time wanted to secure such a profitable route, and the ever-ambitious Columbus devised plans to sail to the Indies to earn rewards of power, money, and fame. The ambitions of the rulers and of the explorer would eventually lead to conflict between them. His estimations of the distances involved were extremely inaccurate (he believed them to be much closer than they actually were). Royal experts in various countries (Portugal, Genoa, and Venice) continually advised their monarchs

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Competing Neuro Behavioral Decision Systems

Question: Discuss about theCompeting Neuro Behavioral Decision Systems. Answer: Introduction: The theoretical frameworks of employment law may be classified into unitarism, pluralism and Marxism. According to the unitarists, a common interest is shared by both the employees and managers with respect to the survival of an organization. If any conflict arise in a workplace then the managers and employees must coordinate and find out a common solution which is desirable for the continuity of a peaceful working condition in a firm. The reasons for which conflict in a workplace arise are because of poor communication, personality disorders, inappropriate recruitment practices, unfair promotion strategies etc. It should be ensured by the management team to address all these issues effectively. The unitarists do not promote the concept of trade union and believe that individuals, who find it difficult to adjust in the workplace because of their personality disorder, should either be terminated or suppressed through effective strategies (Cullinane Dundon, 2014). The unitarists have influenced the emergence of different schools of thoughts (Neesham Cox, 2013). Taylors theory of scientific management (1974) holds the view that the employees are not mature in their ways of work and they have limited aspirations. The management team should formulate effective policies to address these issues and maintain an environment where the employees take their work seriously and deliver their duties properly. The managers should be rational and they should exercise rationalism in the recruitment of employees and give them proper directions so that a peace can be maintained in the workplace. Moreover, the employees should adequate steps to make the employees understand their task properly. The employees have to be treated collectively and not be targeted personally by the managers. Thus, under this theory, the managers are in a superior position and they should be capable enough to direct the workers for performing their tasks properly in a workplace (Shafritz et al., 2015). Human relation theory holds the view that the employees should be given an opportunity to have a say in the ways they are being governed. It has to be ensured that employees derive personal satisfaction from their works and they should be involved in the management process (Goldman, 2015). Human resource management theory holds the view that the organisations goals can be achieved by effective cooperation between the employees and managers. The forces which unify the managers and employees are far stronger than the forces which divide them. The management team should take steps for promoting these forces and help to maintain and unity among the managers and the employees. For attaining these purposes, it is important to keep the line of communication open between the employees and managers (Mondy Martocchio, 2016). Unlike the unitarists, the pluralists believe that conflict in workplace is unavoidable. Under an organisation, there are different groups who have different interests and objectives. The values and interests of the managers and employees differ and a result the emergence of conflict is inevitable. The pluralists believe that the employees should be allowed to exercise their rights through forming trade unions and collectively bargain with the managers so that the best results can be produced. According to pluralism, the employees should not be deprived of their rights and they should be heard in the process of formulating strategies in an organisation. Pluralism has given rise to the one of the most renowned theory known as the Systems theory. The systems theory was developed by Dunlop. According to this theory, the industrial relations fall within the purview of the wider social system. A whole lot of formal and informal rules and regulations influence the work in an organisation. These include performance, holidays, recruitment, hours of work, wages, etc. The employees and managers should both play a significant role in the process of negotiation and resolution of conflicts in an organisation (Koffarnus et al., 2013). Another important theory relating to industrial relations is the Marxist theory. This theory was developed by Karl Marx. According to him the means of production and wealth are not equally distributed among the society. This has led to the emergence of two different classes of people- the capitalists (bourgeoisie) who are the owner of the means of production and the workers (proletariat) who give their labours and hard work for producing goods. The capitalists have a tendency to exploit the workers and therefore a class struggle continues to exist. Thus, the conflict in workplace is a natural outcome of capitalism (Lichtheim, 2015). The employment law in New Zealand has seen rapid changes within short periods of time. The history and development of employment law can be divided into these phases- 1840-1894, 1894-to pre-world war 1, post-world war 2-1851, 1960-1980, 1991-2000 and post 2000. During the period from 1840 to 1894, the employment relations in New Zealand was governed by the common law, the Masters and Servant Act 1823 (UK) and the law relating to criminal conspiracy for industrial disputes (Moore, 2014). The employee organisation before the 1870s were few. Whenever a conflict arose between the employees and the managers, the employees used to follow the same tactics which were prevalent in Britain. Boycotts, marches and petition were common among the employees. Many employees also used to leave jobs looking for better pay and better conditions of work. From the midst 1870s, employees started to hold strikes. But the courts did not support such move of the employees. Under the common law applied by the courts, unions were viewed as unlawful conspiracies. Thus, interests of the employers were protected in those days. Reform was necessary in the existing system for maintaining peace in the organisations. Pressures were exerted to increase industrialisation, to support increased migration, trade union and organised political labour movement. New legislation were introduced such as Employment of Females Act 1873, the Factories Act 1894, Shops and Shop Assistants Act, 1894 and the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894 (Scott, 2014). The Employment of Females Act, 1873 laid down provisions relating to the hours of work, sanitation, holidays etc. for the women. It reduced the maximum hours of work in a day to 8 hours and prohibited females to work at night. But the act was not enforced properly (Eriksson Stanfors, 2013). The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894 encouraged the formation of industrial unions. Thus, the employment law in New Zealand up to the First World War was not that much strong or efficient. The employees in those days had a little protection under the legal framework. The scenario in New Zealand before the First World War could be explained by the theory of Marxism. The capitalists exploited the workers and the period saw a constant struggle between the capitalists on the hand and the workers on the other hand. In the post-world war 1 period during 1930-193, there was an economic crash and around 13% of the male workers lost their jobs. The unions had lost their members and became uninfluential. By 1933 most of the union became inactive and they collapsed. In 1935, a new labour government gave a new beginning to the labour unions. The New Zealand Federation of Labour was established and it ensured minimum living wages to all the employees. It directly entered into negotiations with the governments and ensured that all the employees were given basic minimum wages. In the post-world war 2 period, the unions became stronger and they kept putting pressure on the government for guaranteeing them better conditions of work. The strikes conducted by workers maximised during the 1960s and 1970s. There was high inflation during that period but the wages of the workers were not increased. Therefore, the period saw the maximum number of industrial disputes (Krawczyk Townsend, 2015). The post-world war 1 period and the period of post-world war 2 have actually followed the theory of unitarism. The managers have tried their best to engage the workers and keep them intact in an organisation through various policies and strategies. But, there was a failure of management due to factors such as economic crash, inflation and therefore the struggle continued between the employers and the employees. In the twentieth century, some key legislations were enacted to regulate the working conditions. Such legislations are Labour Relations Act 1987, Employment Contract Act 1991 and the Employment Relations Act 2000. The Labour Relations Act of 1987 was brought by the fourth Labour Government. This Act made the right to strike a statutory right and the jurisdiction of the Arbitration Courts were also increased. The Employments Contract Act, 1991 promoted an efficient labour market system and gave the workers the right to associate with each other and gave freedom to the employees about who should represent them in matters related to issues of employment. The employees were also given rights to negotiate with the employers regarding their individual contracts (Kelsey, 2015). The Employment Relations Act of 2000 took a more balanced approach and emphasised on building a productive relationships among the employers and the employees through mutual trust and confidence (Riley, 2013). Thus, the recent times saw the application of the theory of pluralism in formulating the employment law where the interests of the employees have been taken into account. The rights of the employees have been recognised and they have been given an opportunity to participate in the decision making process in an organisation. According to the provision laid down under Section 6 of the Employment Relationship Act, 2000, an employee is a person who does any work for a reward or on hire under a contract of service. An employee includes a homemaker or a person who intends to work. An employee does not include a volunteer who has no expectation to be rewarded for the work to be done as a volunteer and it also does not include a volunteer who does not get rewarded for the work already performed as a volunteer. An employee also does not include a person who acts as an actor, stunt performer, musician, singer, entertainer, dancer, etc. or works in any other capacity in relation to a film production. Under the common law, the main tests to determine whether an employment relationship exists or not are the control test, intention of the parties test, independence test, control test, fundamental test and integration test. Under the control test, it is seen to what extent the employee or the principal controls the manner in which the work is done. If the level or degree of control is high, then it may be concluded that there exists and employment relationship (Furrowet al., 2014). Under the intention of the parties test, the factor which is looked into to determine whether an employment relationship exists or not is the intention of the parties as to the nature of their relationship (Walsh, 2015). Under the independence test, it is seen whether the person performs the work independently or not. If it is seen that the person is highly independent and totally works on his own, then it may be assumed that the person is not an employee but an independent contractor. Under the fundamental test, it is seen whether the person who performs the work does so on his own account or not. If it is found that the person works on his own account, then it is most likely that the person is not an employee but an independent contractor (Twomey, 2012). Under the integration test, it is seen whether the person who performs the work is integrated into the business or not. If it is found that the person is integrated into the business, then it is assumed that the person is not an independent contractor but an employee (Kruppe et al., 2013). As far as the definition of an employee under Section 6 of the Employment Contract Act, 2000 is concerned, the Supreme Court of New Zealand made the observations that the section changed the tests for the purpose of determining whether an employment relationship exists or not. According to the Court, the real nature of the relationship between the parties should be determined; the intention of the parties is an important factor to be considered but it is not the decisive factor; the nature of relationship between the parties is not decided by the statements made by the parties and the real nature of the relationship existing between the parties must be ascertained by applying the fundamental, control and integration test (Bogg et al., 2013). In the case of Bryson v Three Foot Six Ltd [2005], the Supreme Court of New Zealand determined whether the concerned person is an independent contractor or an employee. The issue of this case was whether the Court of employment made a mistake in considering that Bryson was an employee of three foot six ltd. Bryson, was a model maker for the past twenty years. In the year 2000, he was given a temporary position at three foot six, though after two weeks of his employment he was given a permanent position. He was not provided with any written agreement for the same. In the year 2001, the independent contractors were dismissed including Bryson. Bryson called his dismissal as unjust. In the preliminary decision, Bryson was found to be a contractor. The matter was again heard in the Employment Court where Bryson was held be an employee. The Court of Appeal overturned the decision of the Employment Court by declaring Bryson as contractor. Bryson appealed in the Supreme Court against the dec ision of the Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court held that the Employment Court made no mistake in holding Bryson as an employee (Walker Tipples, 2013). In the case of TNT Worldwide Express Ltd v Cunningham [1993], the issue of whether a person is an employee or a contractor was considered. Cunningham was a courier driver. He brought a grievance for dismissal that was unjustified. However, the Court can entertain such a grievance only if he was given the position of an employee instead of a contractor. Cunningham had a written employment contract with TNT. As per the terms of the contract, he was given the position of an independent contractor. The contract seemed to be ambiguous, as the job responsibilities of Cunningham seemed to be more of an employee than a contractor. In this case, the Court held Cunningham to be a contractor and not an employee. In general cases of ambiguity where the Court fails to make any distinction between a contractor and an employee, a person is held to be an employee. 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